Sunday, May 11, 2008

Beach Tropics

Tropics Hotel, MIAMI BEACH

The Tropics Hotel in Miami Beach (Fla.) is adjacent to the beach, and just 10 miles from Miami International Airport. This property is within four miles of the Bayside Marketplace and the Parrot Jungle.
This Art Deco-style hotel offers guests the high style of South Beach and all the sun-drenched amenities of Florida including a seasonal pool with a sundeck and a patio. Business amenities include a computer rental and high-speed Internet access in public areas. An ATM is conveniently located in the lobby and laundry facilities are also on site.

The Tropics Hotel has 70 guestrooms with sleek furniture designs, Internet access and in-room safes that can accommodate laptop computers. Each guestroom has cable television.

Surrounding Area

Room Information - Tropics Hotel

Bed Type: Short Description: Standard Twin Long Description: Two twin beds. Internet access (surcharge). Cable/satellite TV. In-room safe (accommodates laptop). Shower/tub combination in private bathroom. Hair dryer on request. Air conditioning. Bed Type: Short Description: Standard Queen Long Description: One queen bed. Internet access (surcharge). Cable/satellite TV. In-room safe (accommodates laptop). Shower/tub combination in private bathroom. Hair dryer on request. Air conditioning.
Property Information

Check In Time - 4 p.m.
Check Out Time - 11 a.m.

Star rating: 1.5

Check in time is 4:00 PM, Check out time is 11:00 AM.
Area Activities

Beach - adjacent
Lincoln Mall - 0.5 mile
Wolfsonian Museum - 0.5 mile
Bass Museum of Art - 0.5 mile
Parrot Jungle - 3.0 miles
Bayside Marketplace - 3.5 miles
Lakewood Mall - 4.0 miles
Coconut Grove Playhouse - 8.0 miles
Driving Directions - Tropics Hotel

Take I-195 E to Miami Beach.
Take the Alton Rd S exit.
Turn left onto 16th St.
Turn right onto Collins Ave.
The hotel is located between 16th and 15th Streets.
Policies & Disclaimers

You must present a photo ID when checking in. Your credit card is charged at the time you book.
Bed type and smoking preferences are not guaranteed.Your reservation is prepaid and is guaranteed
for late arrival. The total charge includes all room charges and taxes, as well as fees for access
and booking. Any incidental charges such as parking, phone calls, and room service will be handled
directly between you and the property.

Thursday, April 10, 2008

Tropical beaches

Tropical beachesTropical beachesTropical beaches
A tropical climate is a type of climate typical in the tropics. Köppen's widely-recognized scheme of climate classification defines it as a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above 18°C (64.4 °F).

Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. Although it lies in the subtropics over a hundred miles north of the tropic of cancer, the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico give it a monthly mean temperature never under 65°F, classifying its climate as tropical.

Friday, March 14, 2008

Ocean circulation in a warming climate

Climate models predict that the ocean's circulation will weaken in response to global warming, but the warming at the end of the last ice age suggests a different outcome.

There is an old truism in climate circles that the cold climate at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which occurred 21,000 years ago, had stronger winds. This idea fits with the common observation that it is windier in the winter than in the summer because there is greater thermal contrast within the atmosphere in the winter hemisphere. Temperature reconstructions from the LGM show that Equator-to-pole gradients in sea surface temperature were indeed larger — that is, the polar oceans were colder than the tropical ocean at the LGM in comparison with the temperature differences today.

It is now becoming clear that the winds in the atmosphere drive most of the circulation in the ocean. If the LGM climate really did have stronger winds, it would thus be expected that the circulation in the ocean was more vigorous. The oceans seem to tell a different story, however. The deep water in the ocean's interior is continuously being replaced ('overturned') by surface waters from the poles. This overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean seems to have been weaker at the LGM1. The water in the deep ocean was also very 'old' in relation to the atmosphere — in terms of having a low radiocarbon content — indicating that the ocean's interior was poorly mixed and poorly ventilated2. The overturning circulation then seems to have strengthened as Earth began to warm about 18,000 years ago. The increased overturning vented the radiocarbon-depleted carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, as seen in a pair of big dips in the radiocarbon activity of the atmosphere and upper ocean3. This addition of CO2 to the atmosphere helped to warm the climate and bring the last ice age to an end.

These findings present a conundrum. If the winds were stronger in the cold glacial state and became weaker going into the warm interglacial state, then why was the ocean's circulation weaker during the cold glacial period? And how did it increase in strength during the transition to the warm interglacial period, causing the ocean's interior to become better mixed and better ventilated? Are researchers missing something about the factors that affect ocean circulation, or is it the old truism about the strength of the winds during the cold glacial period that is flawed?

During the 1990s, the first generation of coupled climate models predicted that the ocean's overturning circulation would weaken markedly over the next 100–200 years in response to global warming4. The predicted weakening is a response to the warming itself and to a stronger hydrological cycle, both of which make the ocean surface waters in the models less dense and less able to sink in relation to the water below. Thus, the models suggested that circulation would be less vigorous in a warming climate, somewhat like the weakening expected from diminished winds in a warmer climate outlined above. But again, the real ocean became better mixed and better ventilated when Earth began to warm about 18,000 years ago. So what will happen to the ocean's circulation in a warming climate? Are the models getting it wrong?
Winds and the ocean's overturning circulation

Until recently, the circulation of the ocean was thought to comprise two fairly independent parts. The wind-driven circulation drove the surface currents in the ocean gyres, whereas the overturning circulation ventilated the interior with cold and relatively saline water from the poles. The latter was called the 'thermohaline' circulation to emphasize that it was driven by buoyancy forces — warming, cooling, freshening and salinification — rather than the stress on the surface coming from the winds.

The inconsistencies mentioned earlier could be overlooked if this dichotomy holds, because the winds and the wind-driven circulation in the upper ocean could still have been stronger during the LGM while the thermohaline circulation was less vigorous. However, the dichotomy and the use of the term 'thermohaline' have almost disappeared from the oceanographic literature, because the circulation in the interior is now increasingly seen as being driven by turbulent mixing from the winds and tides5, 6 and directly by the winds themselves7.

The westerly winds over the Southern Ocean seem to be crucial in this regard7. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is a wind-driven current that goes around Antarctica through an east–west channel between South America, Australia and Antarctica that is not blocked by land. Because the winds over the channel and the flow of the ACC are aligned for the length of the channel, the ACC is easily the world's strongest current (by volume of water transported). According to Carl Wunsch8, about 70% of the wind energy going into ocean currents globally goes directly into the ACC.

The same dense water found in the interior north of the ACC is also found just below the surface around Antarctica, and the westerly winds driving the ACC draw this dense water directly up to the surface (Fig. 1). In this way, the winds driving the ACC continually remove dense water from the interior. Dense water must sink elsewhere to replace the water drawn up by the winds around Antarctica.